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How Research Contributes to PM Theory Development

A rigorous research study has the potential to develop a novel idea that contributes, in a significant way, to knowledge about a subject, including the development of project management theory. To apply scientific research in developing a project management theory requires an understanding of the research process and the literature review

GPCG Sample Financial and Accounting Process analysis

Abstract

As the Global Project Consulting Group precipitates toward its IPO offering, It’s Chief Operating Officer is promoted as Vice President of Overseas Operation, leaving no one to oversee the financial operations. 

Practical Application of Project Management Theory

We cannot overstate the significance of translating theory into  practical applications (PA); it transforms abstract concepts into concrete realities. To sustain a realistic outcome …

Application of Macro training in PMBOK, IT, Soft Skills, and Social Responsibility in Maximization of ROI and Project management goals

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether macro training in PMBOK Areas, Information Technology, Soft Skills, and Social Responsibility has an impact on maximizing returns on investment (ROI) and sustaining business success and competitiveness. 

Influential constructs, mediating effects, and moderating effects on complex project management performance from the perspective of advanced PM knowledge, green project, and the unknown

We explore the notion that sustainable success in managing a complex project is not always the cause of the application of …

Ethics in Research

The conduct of ethical research or experiment is propitious to humanity; it is not only a catalyst for discoveries and innovation across disciplines and borders but also produces valid and trustworthy outcomes. 

Theory about PM

There is no universal consensus on the nature and definition of theory. The debate on what it is, how it relates to research, and how it can apply to the phenomenal world continues unabated. Theoretical proponents describe, explain, and make predictions about realities or events from disparate points of view about ontology, epistemology, and methodology.

Contradictions & inconsistencies, and ambiguities regarding PM theories

The choice of a theory counts in scientific research. It provides the underpinning of the phenomenon under investigation. Unfortunately, most PM practitioners choose a method or methodology that doesn’t address the whole spectrum of project management, vitiating the strength and expectation of the research and creating contradictions, inconsistencies, ambiguities, and sometimes abandonment of the study entirely.

Project Leadership and Training

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the average of executive managers who pursue advanced leadership training program can help their organizations attain competitive edge.

A sample survey was conducted among 283 managers (with training) and 202 (without training) from various countries. 

Let’s Build Something Together

Sustainable success in the Portfolio management, program management, and information technology and project management office is not always the cause of service quality, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and corporate image alone. There are moderating and mediating constructs, including leadership, employee satisfaction, employee loyalty, commitment to green, or environmental causes that contribute to or exert influence on business success and profitability in the PM and technology industries. We apply quantitative methodologies to assess leadership, employee satisfaction, employee loyalty, commitment to green, or environmental causes. SPSS is also used to measure the mediating and moderating effects among these constructs or variables.

No Project Too Big Or Too Small

Brief descriptions of projects created to contribute to theory Our researchers explore. Join us.

Our research projects cover numerous industries, including construction, information technology, project management, education, finance, insurance, healthcare, pharma, transportation, etc.

Project leadership and training?

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the average of executive managers who pursue advanced leadership training program can help their organizations attain competitive edge.

A sample survey was conducted among 283 managers (with training) and 202 (without training) from various countries. Twelve core leadership skill sets were identified and studied. They were customer focus, integrity/honesty, stakeholder engagement, diversity awareness, technical know-how, interpersonal skills, communication, team leadership, strategic thinking, openness, problem solving,  and long-term focus

Absence of Meaningful Theory in Project Management

Theories about project management abound—the theory of constraints, complexity theory, stakeholder management theory, triple constraints, and adaptive theory are few examples. Over decades, however, despite the application of these theories in providing guidance and intellectual sustenance to project management practitioners across industries, the completion of projects continues to face increasing odds at achieving their goals. Most PM theories explain only a part and not the whole reality of the project management phenomena. In the world of megaprojects or complexity projects, for instance, theorists who profess determinism, i.e., the notion that cause always gives rise to effect, is a partial judgment.
Moreover, the project management concept of temporality is no longer tenable in most project management milieus. Likewise, project management initiation, planning, implementation or execution, and closing, and its triple constraints -the idea that a project’s scope, time or schedule, and cost- determine its success and failure have imperceptibly waned and lost universal acclaim. Today, projects are managed within or in association with permanent or semi-permanent organizations executing PM proven concepts and concomitantly performing the mundane business or organizational functions. To complete tasks and strategies of a globalized project-based organization also requires a web of networking and interconnected stakeholders located across many frontiers, thus making understanding the philosophical and theoretical basis of PM’s current situation difficult but imperative.
Equally, the claim that constructivism- the notion that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences-is the panacea to masterfully understand project management phenomena is also inadequate. To better understand the world of megaprojects, complex projects, and project management in its entirety requires an eclectic approach along with a methodology or a group of methods that is compatible with the selected theory or theories. Complexity theory, the theory of constraints, chaos theory, and adaptive theory working in concert can provide deeper meanings and explanations of the world of project management, including managing megaprojects.

Contradictions & inconsistencies, and ambiguities regarding PM theories

The choice of a theory counts in scientific research. It provides the underpinning of the phenomenon under investigation. Unfortunately, most PM practitioners choose a method or methodology that doesn’t address the whole spectrum of project management, vitiating the strength and expectation of the research and creating contradictions, inconsistencies, ambiguities, and sometimes abandonment of the study entirely.
Moreover, choosing the wrong research theory or method, such as a quantitative method to try to solve qualitative issues, can lead to inconsequential findings. The fuzzy sets of the theory is an example. Defined as a set of symbols representing a set of objects whose boundaries are not well defined, the theory can be applied in a variety of fields, including project management, risk management, and decision making in a limited way. PM practitioners can also It can also use it to ease teams working together in a multi-functional environment. This theory stems from mathematical reality, and its application is most quantitative studies. In as much as it is considered one of the favorites in the project management world, I think it is impractical if not impossible to endeavor using fuzzy sets of theory in megaproject environment where tasks, activities, and behaviors are uncertain and hard to control.

Theory of constraints

The theory of constraints appeared in 1988 by Eliyahu M. Goldratt as an antidote to constraints or bottlenecks coterminous to business operations. The theory asserts that what stands between business success and failure were constraints, and business managers must invest resources in ensuring the elimination of any obstacle intended to curtail or impede businesses or projects from achieving their stated objectives. In other words, the theory espouses the idea that every system or organization has risks or constraints. These constraints are always preventing management from achieving its goal. These constraints come from within and outside of the organization. Unskilled labor force, inferior quality control policies and practices, lack of internal coordination, and interdepartmental collaboration are examples of internal constraints. Examples of extrinsic constraints include product boycotts, market saturation, vagaries in the price of primary commodities, and regulatory factors. Identifying the bottlenecks, setting up smart policies, and investing in efforts to dispose of the constraints are some ways to minimize or eliminate the constraints and maximize profitability. The fight, therefore, against the system’s constraints and the drive to enhance outputs or results is a lifelong mission of managers if their organizations will have the chance to thrive. Since its provenance and integration into the project management field, the theory of constraints has contributed immensely to managing project schedule and control, resource management, and risk planning. The Critical Chain theory, a byproduct of the theory of constraints, introduced a scheduling buffer management that has succored and empowered project management practitioners in minimizing or eliminating project overruns, planning, and controlling projects. The theory of constraints is useful guidance to project management practitioners. It provides a better understanding of the risks or limitations that come in many shapes and sizes, including but not limited to financial, human resource, legal, economic, political, and environmental issues that usually cause the failure of a project to achieve their business objective successfully.

Stakeholder Theory

The Stakeholder theory places importance on the role of stakeholders and how to manage them. The theory is universally acclaimed. The number of articles that peer review journals have published about stakeholder theory proves the popularity of this theory among project management practitioners. Salient among these journals include the International Journal of Project Management (IJPM), the Project Management Journal (PMJ), the International Journal of Project Managing Projects (IJMP), and the International Journal of Project Organization and Management (IJPOM). Within 25 years, there were 1,284 articles on the theory. Its predominance is also due, in part, to the importance of stakeholders to projects across industries in managing, investing, strategizing, and protecting the interest of the project in the social and environmental context. Moreover, studies indicate that stakeholders impact project success and outcomes significantly, and their role in managing projects is related to performance. They add that knowledge of stakeholder management enables project practitioners to find, classify, analyze stakeholders in an effective way.

The Quandary of PM/IT Methodologies

Public and private organizations perceive PM and IT (software development) methodologies as an antidote to obsolescent, sluggish, and unsystematized information systems (Yakovleva, 2014). To access data faster, provide unparalleled customer service, develop and market a product or service more quickly than their competitors, organizational leaders have invested trillions of dollars annually in the software development industry worldwide (Serrador & Pinto, 2015; Valle & O’Mara, 2015). The outcomes of these investments, however, have been a disappointment to many. To maximize shareholders’ capital, a plethora of software development methodologies have emerged over the decades. The salient includes the Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) also known as the Waterfall, Agile, and Prince2. Agile belongs to a family of software developing methodologies. It consists of SCRUM, Extreme Programming (XP), Spiral, Crystal and Dynamic System Development Method, to name a few (Conforto et al., 2014). Matos and Lopes (2013) and Valle and O’Mara (2015) indicated that a project’s methodology is essential in task measurement and control. They explained that the PMBOK was created to guide PM practitioners to achieve PM tasks successfully. Creswell (2003) considered methodology as a strategic plan that is linked to results.
Generally, these methodologies differ on how to manage a project’s scope, how to deliver the results, and how to engage stakeholders in the process. While the Waterfall methodology focuses on preplanning the scope and delivering the work packages sequentially, the Agile family of methodologies employs an adaptive and iterative approach to software developing. They neither preplan the scope nor deliver or release work package or sprint sequentially. The project’s scope is progressively elaborated and delivered or released incrementally. They also require a proactive and high-level stakeholders’ engagement in the process. A coterie of team members works in a closely proximate milieu where each communicates directly facing the others.
Projects in Control Environments (Prince2), is practiced mainly in Great Britain and most European states (Matos & Lopes, 2013). Prince2 provides a prescriptive and normative approach to project management. Its raison d’etre is coterminous to business enterprises’ undertakings. It guides practitioners to identify a business objective and mobilize resources to achieve that objective. The prince2 method requires high-level project team visibility. The project manager serves as the responsible person for the project. Like PM methodology, Prince2 initiates, plans, executes, controls, and closes projects (Matos & Lopes, 2013).
Despite their disparate approaches to managing project scope and delivering a product or service, these software development methodologies are commonly constrained by time, cost, scope, and quality. Serrador and Pinto (2015) indicated that, as compared to Waterfall method, Agile is a better methodology in the software development industry; it is adaptive and flexible, and its practitioners respond to risks more promptly and expeditiously. Puri (2009), however, noted that while Agile focuses on knowledge-self-managed workers-its process does not work well in a large crowd and complex environment.
Moreover, while the focus of these methodologies has been the software delivery cycle, how well stakeholders are engaged in the process, and how the project teams are supposed to meet, they have disregarded the ontological perspective of what the PM and IT software development project market has become due to PPGE. Yadav (2016) acknowledged that globalization had shifted the development of software from a co-located model (onsite) to an offshore model that involves the collaboration of a network of distributed teams and developers from across national frontiers.
To succeed in an offshore milieu, practitioners and stakeholders must do their part of understanding the ontological, epistemological, and axiological perspectives of the phenomena before choosing the methodology that is most appropriate for their projects. The ontological perspective of PPGE ask the questions: what is PPGE? What does it constitute? It is linear, nonlinear, complex, uncertain, and undefinable? The epistemological perspective will ask: What set of knowledge acquisitions do we need to unravel PPGE’s weakness and benefit? In other words, what skill set is required to fully understand and meet PPGE-based organizational and, often, incompatible stakeholders’ expectations? How do we understand the behavior, volatility, interaction, success, and failure of projectification, programification, and globalization? The axiological perspective poses the question: Do literature review, our internal analysis, and personal view help us ascertain untainted and unbiased understanding about PM phenomena? (Creswell, 2003, 2014; Sullivan, 2009; Tallon, 2014; Venkatesh et al., 2013).
Moreover, questions concerning the choice of methodology that practitioners may ask to include the following: How practical it is for an offshore or virtual team to meet face to face? How successful will be the outcome of co-located team members if they are unaware of the complexity, chaos, interconnectedness, and interrelatedness of the PM phenomena? Indeed, knowledge of PMBOK and the application of a software development methodology alone is not sufficient to riposte the multi-faced risks-the known unknowns and the unknown unknowns- that globalization continually presents.
PMT 2.0 intends to bridge the ontological gap that exists between the application of these methodologies and PM phenomena. PMT 2.0 espouses the notion that knowledge is the game changer between project mortality (chaos) and immortality (sustainability) and that continuous acquisition of knowledge about phenomena is propitious to a project’s success (sustainability). In other words, if advanced knowledge of PM complexity, nonlinearity, and uncertainty is essential to PM, then the relationship between phenomena and the achievement of business or project objectives can be positive, negative or none.

Influential constructs, mediating effects, and moderating effects on complex project management performance from the perspective of advanced PM knowledge, green project, and the unknown

We explore the notion that sustainable success in managing a complex project is not always the cause of the application of PM standards, stakeholder engagement, time management, cost management, scope management, and the like. There were other moderating and mediating powerful constructs, including leadership, green project management, and advanced knowledge of the universe, the known unknown such as the outbreak of plaque that can contribute to or exert influence on business success and profitability in the PM industries. The study will apply quantitative methodologies to assess PM standards, stakeholder engagement, time management, cost management, scope management, leadership, green project management, and advanced knowledge of the universe, the known unknown such as the outbreak of plaque, advanced PM knowledge, green project, and the unknown
To understand the research results fully requires a comprehensive understanding of the meanings and applications of an independent variable (IV), a mediating variable (MeV), a moderating variable (MD), and a dependent variable (DV). An experimenter manipulates the IV to achieve an outcome. An MD exists when two separate variables viz. an IV and a DV are contingent on the external-third- variable. MD strengthens or changes the relationships between the IV and DV. MeD explains and influences the relation between a predictor and an outcome. Acting together, MD and MeD can alter the relationship between IV and DV as well as explain the cause and effect relationships between them.

Happening Now

We Have the Power to Impact Our Future, and We’re Doing Something About It

Project Management Theory 2.0, aka PMT 2.0, has been Published

Project Management Theory 2.0, aka PMT 2.0, has been Published

Dr. Abu Fofana has investigated the causes of project, program, and information technology management success and failure and found solutions that amplify the chance of delivering programs and projects, maximizing the return of capital, and sustaining organizational...

Why PMSURI Exists

Why PMSURI Exists

A thoroughly conducted scientific or scholarly research finds answers to hypotheses or propositions. It produces outcomes that have a direct and indirect impact on individuals, institutions, communities and the world at large. In other words, when the researchers...

Ethics in the Conduct of Scientific Research

Ethics in the Conduct of Scientific Research

Research ethics serve dual objectives: The first is geared toward guiding researchers, scientists, and doctors in the conduct of research so that they can, without cruelty and injustice, treat human as well as animal subjects involved in an experiment or research...

How to Determine a Suitable Research Problem

How to Determine a Suitable Research Problem

The purpose of this article is to write a paper on the characteristics of a research problem. I have organized and divide the article into five parts. The first part discusses the features or aspects of a research problem. The second part outlines what constitutes a...

Differences in Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Differences in Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Understanding the differences between qualitative or quantitative methods is essential in the conduct of research in any industry. While both methods are widely used and sometimes the techniques of one can overlap the other, there are pronounced differences between...

Fundamentals of Research

Fundamentals of Research

The purpose of this article is to write a paper on the fundamentals of a doctoral research project. The fact that the validity and reliability of research results is a sine qua non in doctoral program, (Krizman, 2011) (Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013, p. 34), the...

PMSU Research Institute

PMSU Research Institute

Recent research reported on project management reminds us of the classic tale of the six blind men (researchers) and the elephant (phenomenon). According to the story, each one of the blind men touched and observed a separate body part of the elephant including its...

Validate the Concept of Earned Value Management

Validate the Concept of Earned Value Management

Earned value management (EVM) methodology empowers project management professionals to effectively plan, track, and forecast the status of a project’s scope, cost, and schedule. Effective implementation of EVMS depends on a viable work breakdown structure (WBS),...

Featured Initiatives

Project Management Theory 2.0, aka PMT 2.0, has been Published

Project Management Theory 2.0, aka PMT 2.0, has been Published

Dr. Abu Fofana has investigated the causes of project, program, and information technology management success and failure and found solutions that amplify the chance of delivering programs and projects, maximizing the return of capital, and sustaining organizational...

Why PMSURI Exists

Why PMSURI Exists

A thoroughly conducted scientific or scholarly research finds answers to hypotheses or propositions. It produces outcomes that have a direct and indirect impact on individuals, institutions, communities and the world at large. In other words, when the researchers...

Ethics in the Conduct of Scientific Research

Ethics in the Conduct of Scientific Research

Research ethics serve dual objectives: The first is geared toward guiding researchers, scientists, and doctors in the conduct of research so that they can, without cruelty and injustice, treat human as well as animal subjects involved in an experiment or research...

How to Determine a Suitable Research Problem

How to Determine a Suitable Research Problem

The purpose of this article is to write a paper on the characteristics of a research problem. I have organized and divide the article into five parts. The first part discusses the features or aspects of a research problem. The second part outlines what constitutes a...

Differences in Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Differences in Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Understanding the differences between qualitative or quantitative methods is essential in the conduct of research in any industry. While both methods are widely used and sometimes the techniques of one can overlap the other, there are pronounced differences between...

Fundamentals of Research

Fundamentals of Research

The purpose of this article is to write a paper on the fundamentals of a doctoral research project. The fact that the validity and reliability of research results is a sine qua non in doctoral program, (Krizman, 2011) (Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013, p. 34), the...

PMSU Research Institute

PMSU Research Institute

Recent research reported on project management reminds us of the classic tale of the six blind men (researchers) and the elephant (phenomenon). According to the story, each one of the blind men touched and observed a separate body part of the elephant including its...

Ethics in the Conduct of Scientific Research

Ethics in the Conduct of Scientific Research

The conduct of ethical research or experiments is propitious to humanity; it is not only a catalyst for discoveries and innovation across disciplines and borders but also produces valid and trustworthy outcomes. It is also a sine qua non to research in project...

How Research Contributes to Theory

How Research Contributes to Theory

We argue that due to the disjoint between PM theory and PPGEs, a project management theory 2.0 (PMT 2.0) is being developed along with a new set of PM tools (PMT Guide 2.0), to enhance the performance of project management practitioners and dramatically reduce the perennial delay in completing projects, including complex projects.

Practical Application of Project Management Theory

Practical Application of Project Management Theory

Introduction We cannot overstate the significance of translating theory into a practical application (PA); it transforms abstract concepts into concrete realities. To sustain a realistic outcome from translating theory into practice depends on compatibility between...

Our Top Priorities

To develop a new PM theory 2.0 (PMT 2.0) and to explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the existing PM theory and the emergent PMT 2.0. Empirical evidence or data gathered from observations, SurveyMonkey.com, Google Survey, interviews, organization’s strategic reports, and archives will be used to compare and determine whether projectification, programification, and globalization escalation (PPGE) have expanded the theoretical base of PM domain, whether PPGE affects PM success, and which theory -the extant or the new-is superior. The study will be conducted in the United States of America.

Developing PM New Theory 2.0 Part I

PPGE has expanded PM extant theory domain beyond the iron triangle viz. scope, cost, and schedule (Artto et al., 2015; Godenhjelm et al., 2014; Rijke et al., 2014). The expansion has also gone beyond the temporality and project lifecycle contextualization. This limited vista makes PM extant theory ineffective in predicting events that may drive organizations to succeed or fail. Garel (2012) indicated PM has no theory but an orchestrated and tested customary practices, standards, and tools. Parker et al. (2015) demonstrated that managing project uncertainty and predictability was a critical factor in achieving sustainable success.

PMT 2.0 Theoretical Foundation Part I

The purpose of a virtuous and good theory is to undergird practitioners with full knowledge of phenomena, boost their performance or solve real problems (Greenwald, 2012; Huarng & Mas-Tur, 2016). Solving PM problems in a sustainable way requires deep understanding, knowledge, expertise, and experience regarding the nature and environment of PM phenomena. 

The Application and Praxis of PM Theory Part I

Feldman and Worline (2014) expressed skepticism about the repeated application of PM tools, methodologies, approaches, and standards on projects regardless of their idiosyncratic and environmental differences. They proposed, for practical application of theory and rationality, the exercise of subtleness and the application of knowledge and tools appropriate to PM phenomena. 

The Application of Research Methods in Theory Development

Universally, there are three categories of theoretical methods that researchers use to gather facts, data, and evidence to test or verify assumptions, propositions, and research questions about phenomena and contribute to the process of developing theories. They are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. These methods use various instruments to gather data including survey, interview, library research, focus group, observation, video recording, and archival research, to name a few.

The Impact of PPGE on Industries Part I

During the last decade, organizations outsourced PM and IT services to fulfill specific organizational strategies: to accelerate the process of bringing goods and services to market faster by effectively controlling cost, reducing red-tape and meeting quality requirements (Packendorf & Lindgren, 2013). The continued dismal failures of the rate of return on capital, coupled with the economic recession, rigorous regulatory requirements, challenges of globalization, the toughening of the competitive climate, and the hurdles involved in protecting intellectual property (IP) rights overseas has compelled most industries to integrate PM temporary services and perennial organization operations.

 

Campaign for a better PM 

The weaknesses and strengths of PM theory must be examined continually considering PPGE expansion efforts. PMT 2.0 boundary incorporates PPGE constructs. It is a workable resolution to the paradox of integrating temporary tasks and permanent operations or hiring short-term PM strategists to achieve long-term organizational outcomes (Sjoblom et al., 2013). 

Get Involved

An organized PPGE-based education or training is perhaps the most significant missing link between PPGE expansion efforts and PM theoretical foundation.

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Completion of this website

Check back for new provocative articles … More Details

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Nov

Join our future conference

Future researchers may wish to examine the various dimensions of projectification, programification, globalization, and the theoretical impact of the conflation of temporary project and infinite organizational activities (Godenhjelm et al., 2014).  More Details

23

Jan

Join our webinar

Knowledge is the game changer between organizational mortality and immortality and should be treated as such. Training objectives should match PPGE constructs and should answer the following questions: Who and what? How to know the who and what? How to implement PM phenomena? How to add value to PM phenomena? How to disclose and report information? The International Project Management Association (IPMA) along with its federated members, must collaborate with educational institutions to create terminal PPGE-based learning objectives or curricula that provide PM trainees a profound understanding of PPGE constructs.  More Details

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