Research ethics serve dual objectives: The first is geared toward guiding researchers, scientists, and doctors in the conduct of research so that they can, without cruelty and injustice, treat human as well as animal subjects involved in an experiment or research study. The second is to educate researchers to abide by high ethical and moral standards. These standards comprise The Nuremberg Code, Helsinki Declaration, Belmont Report, The Animal Welfare Act, The APA Principles and The Protection of Human Subjects Regulations. The Nuremberg Code obliges research management, to among other things, obtain from research participants, a voluntary consent, avoid undue mental and corporal suffering, and abandon the researched studies if either the potential risks in the research study are more than the benefits and or if continuation or outcomes may harm society. The Nuremberg Code also requires that only qualified research investigators should manage experiments or studies. The Helsinki Declaration instructs research investigators to seek the consent of research participants; sets out comprehensive rules governing the use and recruitment of children and mentally disabled persons and calls for a safe research environment. The Belmont Report calls for respect for human subjects, beneficence, justice, and assessment of risks versus benefits. The APA Principles focuses on the conduct of teaching, research, therapy, counseling, testing, and other professional roles and responsibilities. The Animal Welfare Act provides a set of procedures on how to protect and treat animals in an experiment. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversights the conduct of research. This article intends to explore the unnecessary risks for research participants and invites researchers to apply ethical principles across cultures and societies the world over.
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